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Portuguese Association Of Pharmacy Students

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The National ExCo members

  • President: Diana Carvalho.
  • Vice President for External Relations: Manuel Talhinhas.
  • Vice President for Internal Relations: Sofia Fonte.
  • Treasurer: Bárbara Ramalho.
  • Secretary General: Rodrigo Ramos. 
  • Department of Health Promotion and Education: Carolina Rodrigues. 
  • Department of Internships and Professional Development: Adriana Machado.
  • Department of Education and Formation: Diana Lopes.
  • Design and Image Department: Luís Silva.
  • Commercial Department: João Paulino.
  • Cultural Department: Patrícia Capucho.
  • EPSA Liaison Secretary/ National IMP Coordinator: Leonor Pereira.
  • IPSF Contact Person/Student Exchange Officer: Raquel Oliveira.

Our motto is:

“A APEF de hoje, na génese e vanguarda do Farmacêutico do futuro.”  – Today´s APEF, at the genesis and vanguard of the future pharmacist.

The Portuguese Association of Pharmacy Students was founded on December 9, 1998. It emerged as a response to the inherent need to represent students of the Integrated Masters in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Together, they have built a cohesive and united front, which is designed to defend students’ interests and complement the curriculum of Pharmaceutical Sciences Teaching Institutions from all over the country.

Bearing in mind that the pharmacist brings together unique values, APEF intends to complement what has already been taught in teaching institutions with new and bold perspectives of training and education, health education, knowledge of career opportunities, international presence, commercial and marketing vision, media and image strategy and cultural linkage.




March Crazy Clinical Corner – Pain Management

Patient case: 

Jacques, a 34 year old man comes into your pharmacy looking for something for pain. He explains that he was in an accident a few months ago. He is recovering well and his injuries have healed but he still has quite sharp pains in his leg. He did have some strong pain relief, oxycodone, prescribed for him previously but he ran out of it a while ago. He has been taking paracetamol and ibuprofen regularly but finds that isn’t helping, and low dose codeine helps a little but he doesn’t want to take too much codeine. You recommend that he goes to the doctor’s to get it properly assessed. Some time later he returns with a prescription for gabapentin 600 mg three times a day.



  1. Jacques has no history of epilepsy or seizures. Why has an antiepileptic been prescribed?
  2. What kind of pain is Jacques experiencing?
  3. What are the symptoms of this kind of pain?
  4. Is the choice of medicine and the dose prescribed appropriate? If not, what would be better?
  5. Discussion question  (please add your response to the comments below)5. what non pharmacological options to help Jacques with his pain?


جاك، رجل يبلغ من العمر 34 عاما جاء إلى الصيدلية بحثاً عن حل للألم. أخبرك أنه تعرض إلى حادث قبل بضعة أشهر وهو الآن يتعافى بشكل جيد إضافةً إلى التئام إصاباته ولكنه لا يزال يعاني آلاما حادة جدا في قدمه.  سابقا كانت بحوزته وصفة أوكسيكودون لتخفيف الآلام ، ولكنه نفد منذ فترة. أخذ الباراسيتامول والإيبوبروفين بانتظام ولكن ذلك لم يساعده.  رغم أن جرعة الكودين المنخفضة ساعدته قليلا إلا أنه لا يريد إستهلاك الكثير منها. نصحته بزيارة الطبيب للحصول على تقييم ملائم.بعد فترة عاد جاك و معه وصفة طبية   فيها  600 ملغ غابابنتين ثلاث مرات في اليوم

 لا يعاني جاك من مرض الصرع و لم تصادفه أي نوبة مرضية من قبل. لماذا تم وصف مضاد للصرع؟

 ما هو سبب الألم الذي يعاني منه جاك ؟

ما هي أعراض هذا النوع من الألم؟

 هل اختيار الدواء والجرعة الموصوفة مناسب؟ إن لم يكن كذلك، ما هو الأفضل؟

سؤال للمناقشة (يرجى إضافة ردك على التعليقات أدناه)

 ما الخيارات الموجودة لتخفيف ألم جاك دون اللجوء إلى الأدوية؟



Jacques, un homme de 34 ans se rend à votre pharmacie à la recherche de quelque chose contre la douleur. Il vous explique qu’il était victime d’un accident il ya quelques mois. Il s’en est bien remis et ses blessures ont guéri, mais il a encore des douleurs très vives qui persistent au niveau de sa jambe. Dans le passé, Il a eu une prescription pour l’oxycodone ce qui permis de soulager sa douleur mais il a épuisé ce médicament. Il prends du paracétamol et de l’ibuprofène régulièrement, mais trouve que cela ne l’aide pas beaucoup, et la faible dose de codéine le soulage peu, mais il ne veut pas en prendre trop. Vous recommandez qu’il consulte le médecin pour une évaluation appropriée. Quelque temps plus tard, il revient avec une ordonnance de 600 mg de gabapentine à prendre trois fois par jour.


  1. Jacques n’a pas d’antécédents d’épilepsie ou de convulsions. Pourquoi un antiépileptique a-t-il été prescrit?
  2. Quel genre de douleur ressens Jacques?
  3. Quels sont les symptômes de ce type de douleur?
  4. Le choix du médicament et de la dose prescrite est-il approprié? Sinon, qu’est ce qui serait mieux?


Question de discussion (veuillez ajouter votre réponse aux commentaires ci-dessous)

  1. quelles options non pharmacologiques peuvent aider Jacques et sa douleur?

Egyptian Traditional Medicine

Compounding Corner – March 2017

Let’s learn some facts about the history of pharmacy and pharmaceutical preparations from the time of the Pharaohs of Egypt!

The origin of Egyptian medicine dates from a long time ago, about 2900 B.C. Medicine in the pharaonic times was mixed with magic and was used together with many rituals, spells and charms of all kind. Disease was often believed to have been sent by the Gods as a punishment, or by evil spirits.

One of the most remarkable records of pharmacy practices includes the Ebers Papyrus, dating from 1500 B.C. This papyrus is a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meter long, and is currently kept at the library of the University of Leipzig, in Germany! We can think of it as a modern formula book with a collection of around 800 prescriptions together with formulated prayers and incantations. It’s amazing to see that Egyptian pharmacopoeia was quite advanced with the third of current medicinal plants already figuring in this document. Many herbal drugs were used for the same purposes as today, including opium, cannabis, myrrh, frankincense, castor oil, fennel, cassia, senna, thyme, henna, juniper, linseed, aloe, garlic, coriander, cumin and many others.

Besides the vegetable products, many mineral compounds were in general use such as iron, lead, magnesia, common salt, niter or even finely powdered precious stones like emeralds and sapphires. Animal drugs were also used and some of them were unusual, including lizard’s blood, swine’s teeth, meat and fat of all sort of animals, human and goat milk, various excreta of human beings, donkeys, dogs and cats for instance.

Ancient Egyptians were familiar with numerous medicinal products and various forms of preparation. They could supply medicaments in the form of infusions, decoctions, inhalations, powders, pills, suppositories, creams, pastes, ointments, etc. Oral route was the most common route of drug administration, others include rectal, vaginal, external application and fumigation. This latter was often prescribed and assumed to be a means of curing gynaecological disorders. It involved producing fumes from a medicated solution that could then enter woman’s body through the vagina.

Formulations were characterized by the active ingredient, a vehicle in which it was carried, flavoring and a demulcent – a substance soothing irritated mucous membranes in the mouth by forming a protective film –  or, possibly, a secondary drug. The most common vehicle for medicines was water, but also honey, milk, oil, wine and beer. However, all of them could well have been considered active drugs in their own, particularly honey. In many cases, the active drug in herbal preparation is an alkaloid (e.g., atropine, nicotine, quinine and morphine) which is best extracted with alcohol. Wine or beer would have provided the strongest concentration of alcohol available in ancient Egypt, also they would have been a pleasant ingredient to offset other disagreeable components. The herbs soaked in wine could be drunk as an oral medicine.

Instructions for preparation were specific, affording reproducibility. During the preparation of medicines and also before their use, special forms of prayer could be spoken. Drugs could be ground, sieved, powdered or infused in water, alcohol or fat. The drug part – leaf, seed, fruit, root, bark, juice or resin – was specified indicating concept of pharmacognosy. Some evidence shows that pharmacy in ancient Egypt was conducted by a “head pharmacist” directing compounding activities to “preparers of drugs” in the temple drug room. The Egyptians used mortars of wood or stone, and used containers of pottery and glass for compounding. Weights were very seldom used in the preparation of remedies. Capacity measurement was based on a standard volume. The smallest medicinally used unit, the ro, had a value of approximately 15 ml. However, because of varying drug levels in any plant, this means that no two recipes would have had the same efficacy, even if equal quantities were used.

Here is one last fun fact that might change how you see the symbol ‘℞’! Did you know that one theory about the origin of this symbol currently representing a medical prescription in many parts of the world can goes back to Egyptian times? There is a hint of connections with the Egyptian symbol known as Eye of Horus that used to be drawn by the ancient Egyptians as a magic sign to protect themselves from disease, suffering and evil. It was painted on the papyrus rolls used for writing about medicine and doctors.

Egyptian pharmacy definitely exerted a tremendous influence on the pharmaceutical practice of our current world!


Further Information:

FASFR, Romania

Federation of Pharmacy Students’ Associations in Romania

The National ExCo has 5 members: 
– Cristina Drăgan – President
– Alexandra Lupu – VP of External Affairs
– Liliana Cosma – VP of Internal Affairs
– Bianca Băluță – Secretary General
– Iulian Brătulescu – Treasurer
The team has 16 members.

Our motto is: “We make a better future for the pharmacy students!”

“We want to make a positive change in the society, to contribute to the development of the students and to improve the health of the population, because this is our role as pharmacists.
FASFR is the only national organisation from Romania which represents the pharmacy students. Under its umbrella there are 8 local associations. We organize many Public Health Campaigns which have a great impact all over the country. For example, last year, during World Diabetes Day, each association organized different activities such as powerpoint presentations in schools, blood sugar tests (1300) for students and citizens, a big blue circle of students. Also one of the coordinators had the opportunity to promote the campaign at a national TV show.
Our special project is called “interPRACTIS” and takes place during summer. For two weeks, pharmacy students from FASFR have the chance to broaden their professional skills and increase their knowledge by taking part in this project. It gives the opportunity to practice the field of pharmacy in several cities, bringing together students from different universities. It is the only project of its kind in Romania which offers the possibility to carry out summer internships in fields like hospital pharmacy, industry, research and warehouse from 8 cities of their choice.
Besides the campaigns, FASFR has two national events. In spring, we organize a Congress, where Romanian students can participate in workshops, trainings and symposiums. Also, during this Congress, the General Assembly chooses the new team. In winter we organize FASFR Academy where the main goal is the development of the professional and personal skills. The educational program is composed by discussion panels, workshops and trainings, a health campaign, a special fair of the local organisations and the GA as well. The number of the participants is smaller in order to provide the best educational programme.”
– Maria – Isabelle Pîslă, Contact Person
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