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Egyptian Traditional Medicine

Compounding Corner – March 2017

Let’s learn some facts about the history of pharmacy and pharmaceutical preparations from the time of the Pharaohs of Egypt!

The origin of Egyptian medicine dates from a long time ago, about 2900 B.C. Medicine in the pharaonic times was mixed with magic and was used together with many rituals, spells and charms of all kind. Disease was often believed to have been sent by the Gods as a punishment, or by evil spirits.

One of the most remarkable records of pharmacy practices includes the Ebers Papyrus, dating from 1500 B.C. This papyrus is a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meter long, and is currently kept at the library of the University of Leipzig, in Germany! We can think of it as a modern formula book with a collection of around 800 prescriptions together with formulated prayers and incantations. It’s amazing to see that Egyptian pharmacopoeia was quite advanced with the third of current medicinal plants already figuring in this document. Many herbal drugs were used for the same purposes as today, including opium, cannabis, myrrh, frankincense, castor oil, fennel, cassia, senna, thyme, henna, juniper, linseed, aloe, garlic, coriander, cumin and many others.

Besides the vegetable products, many mineral compounds were in general use such as iron, lead, magnesia, common salt, niter or even finely powdered precious stones like emeralds and sapphires. Animal drugs were also used and some of them were unusual, including lizard’s blood, swine’s teeth, meat and fat of all sort of animals, human and goat milk, various excreta of human beings, donkeys, dogs and cats for instance.

Ancient Egyptians were familiar with numerous medicinal products and various forms of preparation. They could supply medicaments in the form of infusions, decoctions, inhalations, powders, pills, suppositories, creams, pastes, ointments, etc. Oral route was the most common route of drug administration, others include rectal, vaginal, external application and fumigation. This latter was often prescribed and assumed to be a means of curing gynaecological disorders. It involved producing fumes from a medicated solution that could then enter woman’s body through the vagina.

Formulations were characterized by the active ingredient, a vehicle in which it was carried, flavoring and a demulcent – a substance soothing irritated mucous membranes in the mouth by forming a protective film –  or, possibly, a secondary drug. The most common vehicle for medicines was water, but also honey, milk, oil, wine and beer. However, all of them could well have been considered active drugs in their own, particularly honey. In many cases, the active drug in herbal preparation is an alkaloid (e.g., atropine, nicotine, quinine and morphine) which is best extracted with alcohol. Wine or beer would have provided the strongest concentration of alcohol available in ancient Egypt, also they would have been a pleasant ingredient to offset other disagreeable components. The herbs soaked in wine could be drunk as an oral medicine.

Instructions for preparation were specific, affording reproducibility. During the preparation of medicines and also before their use, special forms of prayer could be spoken. Drugs could be ground, sieved, powdered or infused in water, alcohol or fat. The drug part – leaf, seed, fruit, root, bark, juice or resin – was specified indicating concept of pharmacognosy. Some evidence shows that pharmacy in ancient Egypt was conducted by a “head pharmacist” directing compounding activities to “preparers of drugs” in the temple drug room. The Egyptians used mortars of wood or stone, and used containers of pottery and glass for compounding. Weights were very seldom used in the preparation of remedies. Capacity measurement was based on a standard volume. The smallest medicinally used unit, the ro, had a value of approximately 15 ml. However, because of varying drug levels in any plant, this means that no two recipes would have had the same efficacy, even if equal quantities were used.

Here is one last fun fact that might change how you see the symbol ‘℞’! Did you know that one theory about the origin of this symbol currently representing a medical prescription in many parts of the world can goes back to Egyptian times? There is a hint of connections with the Egyptian symbol known as Eye of Horus that used to be drawn by the ancient Egyptians as a magic sign to protect themselves from disease, suffering and evil. It was painted on the papyrus rolls used for writing about medicine and doctors.

Egyptian pharmacy definitely exerted a tremendous influence on the pharmaceutical practice of our current world!

 

Further Information:

FASFR, Romania

Federation of Pharmacy Students’ Associations in Romania

 
The National ExCo has 5 members: 
– Cristina Drăgan – President
– Alexandra Lupu – VP of External Affairs
– Liliana Cosma – VP of Internal Affairs
– Bianca Băluță – Secretary General
– Iulian Brătulescu – Treasurer
The team has 16 members.

Our motto is: “We make a better future for the pharmacy students!”

“We want to make a positive change in the society, to contribute to the development of the students and to improve the health of the population, because this is our role as pharmacists.
FASFR is the only national organisation from Romania which represents the pharmacy students. Under its umbrella there are 8 local associations. We organize many Public Health Campaigns which have a great impact all over the country. For example, last year, during World Diabetes Day, each association organized different activities such as powerpoint presentations in schools, blood sugar tests (1300) for students and citizens, a big blue circle of students. Also one of the coordinators had the opportunity to promote the campaign at a national TV show.
Our special project is called “interPRACTIS” and takes place during summer. For two weeks, pharmacy students from FASFR have the chance to broaden their professional skills and increase their knowledge by taking part in this project. It gives the opportunity to practice the field of pharmacy in several cities, bringing together students from different universities. It is the only project of its kind in Romania which offers the possibility to carry out summer internships in fields like hospital pharmacy, industry, research and warehouse from 8 cities of their choice.
Besides the campaigns, FASFR has two national events. In spring, we organize a Congress, where Romanian students can participate in workshops, trainings and symposiums. Also, during this Congress, the General Assembly chooses the new team. In winter we organize FASFR Academy where the main goal is the development of the professional and personal skills. The educational program is composed by discussion panels, workshops and trainings, a health campaign, a special fair of the local organisations and the GA as well. The number of the participants is smaller in order to provide the best educational programme.”
– Maria – Isabelle Pîslă, Contact Person

Volume 4 – 2 April 2017

ICYMI…

WHSA Connecting Members Initiative

The Connecting Members Initiative Webinar was broadcasted live on the 31st of March at 2 pm GMT.  The four organizations; The International Federation of Medical Students’ Association, the International Pharmaceutical Students’ Federation, The International Association for Dental Students and The International Veterinary Students’ Association, participated together in this webinar. They presented the main fields of work for each organization and how you can connect with their members in the countries you are in.

FIP WC Student’s Package Registration Open!

The Registration for FIP student package is currently underway. If you intend to apply for the student package please be hurry to catch the chance to join this great event. The informations are described below in more detail.
1. Registration

  • Online registration will be done with the google form (Registration Process in detail and the link in in the website in the ‘Online Registration Tab’)
  • There is no quota. Both phase 1 and 2 will be on first come first served basis.
  • The 1st Phase will be from 13th March until 2nd April and the 2nd phase will be from 3rd April until 5th May.
  • Applicants will have 3 days for Confirmation Letter and 7 days for payment, after they get emails from S&YP JWG registration team accordingly.
  • Registration fee would be 450 Euros for Full package and 250 Euros for selective package (Full Package excluding FIP WC registration fee) on Phase 1. And 500 Euros for Full package and 300 Euros for Selective Package on Phase 2.

​2​. Full Package

  • FIP World Congress access
  • Accommodation
    • 10th~13th September, 2017 (4 Nights in total; 10th, 11th, 12th 13th night)
    • If the participants want to stay on 14th night, we can arrange it for them, but they have to pay on-site directly to the hotel. Participants can register additional nights before/after of the congress other than 14th, September.
    • Breakfast included.
  • 2 Night Events (Korean Night, International Night)

3.  Promotion

4. Official email accounts

For the registration please visit the student package official website https://fipseoulsp2017.wixsite.com/fipseoulsnyp2017

Inter-regional Patient Counseling Event Finals!

It is time for the Inter-regional Online PCE finals! Regional winners please find the google form posted and ensure to submit your forms by Tuesday, 4th April at 23:59 GMT. Please note that the final stage is only open to the five regional winners and Individual member winners. Please contact Ms. Riziki Mulimba at patientcounselling@ipsf.org or your Contact Persons for any questions. Best of luck! 

Leadership Summer School

What is LSS? 

Leadership Summer School is an intensive learning event and a networking platform, aiming at increasing skills and readiness of youth NGO leaders by sharing best practices and improving leadership skills. For more information on the project visit our website!

What are we looking for? 

We are looking for 60 highly motivated and active students and young professionals who want to participate in a challenging learning event.

When and Where?

LSS2017 will take place in Budapest, Hungary from 15th to 24th July 2017.

What about the fee? 

The fee will be 250 EUR for students and 350 EUR for working professionals which includes:

  • accommodation
  • food (3 meals per day + coffee breaks)
  • transport for LSS activities
  • some social activities

If selected to participate in the event, you will be requested to deposit 50% of the participation fee (250 EUR for students and 350 EUR for professionals) as a confirmation. This deposit is non-refundable. The pending amount can be paid before or at the event. Further details will be communicated after selection is over.

How to apply?

  • 1) Fill out the LSS 2017 Application form
  • 2) Send your CV in Europass format to contact@leadershipsummerschool .org
  • Mail subject format:  “[CV] [YOUR FULL NAME] [ORGANISATION]”
  • Deadline to apply: 19th April, Saturday,  23:59 CEST

And now?

We are looking forward to reading your applications and if you have any questions or suggestions, feel free to contact us:

  • Mail: contact@leadershipsummerschool.org
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • #LSS2017

Public Health Campaigns

The SEO Scoop

 

  • SEP photo contest is still on till 15th April Make sure you post photo , tag #SEPfriendship and remind yourself and your friends on amazing memories from SEP adventure! 
  • Don’t forget to apply for the SEP grant to get some financial support for your SEP experience!
  • SEP podcast #3 is out! Listen to it and learn which skills you can get or strengthen on SEP. 
  • LAST MINUTE SEP OPPORTUNITY FOR SUMMER 2017! After counting unused application forms around 70 applications are still free. If you are interested in going to Algeria, Togo, Rwanda, Armenia, Turkey, Indonesia, Slovakia, Zimbabawe, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia, Sudan, Ghana, DR Congo, UAE and some other countries, for SEP, you still have chance. Please contact your SEO from your association and get more information on the procedure how to get spare application and how you can be chosen to go for SEP this summer.

Regional Updates

AFrO

  • We’re currently accepting articles for our newsletter issue 8. Details here. Deadline: Tuesday, 11th April 2017 at 23:59 GMT+3
  • KEPhSA, Kenya and PANS Nigeria are the 2017 hosts of TDC in AfRO.
  • IPSF AfRO Call for First Essay Competition 2017. Deadline: 30th April 2017 23:59 GMT+0.
  • KEPhSA, Kenya is the first round winner of the IPSF online PCE competition. They’re currently representing AfRO in the final (inter-regional) stage of the competition.
  • Kenyatta University Pharmacy Students Association (KuPhSA) first edition of  Pharm Journal is online:Download here.
  • Blog stories from AfRO that you shouldn’t miss reading: onetwo; three.

APRO

  • APRO published an infographic series about depression in honor of World Health Day. Check it out on their Facebook Page!
  • APRO Face-to-Face meeting occurred last weekend and the team is ready to meet everyone at APPS in July!
  • Registration or APPS CLOSES Monday, 3 April! Don’t delay, register NOW!

EMRO

  • TDC – EMRO was a success! A big THANK YOU to our hosts, ATEP, Tunisia. Check out the TDC Highlight Reel to feel a bit of the TDC love!
  • EMRO hosted an awesome World TB Day campaign; check out the video!

EuRO

  • EuRO is extending the deadline for the Regional Media and Publications Subcommittee until April 9th! Apply here.

PARO

  • Preparations are underway for the 11th PARS! First phase of registration for 11th PARS in Mexico City, Mexico until April 15, so register NOW at facebook.com/parsmexico2017
  • Check out the fourth issue of the PARO Newsletter!
  • We want to know about your association’s activities and share it with the rest of the region! Let us know what your association has been up to through our PARO spotlight form here!

NAPSer, Serbia

National Association of Pharmacy Students – Serbia

 NAPSer aims to create a single national center, which represents the interests of local pharmacy students in the country and abroad and helps their professional development through projects and campaigns that represent public and professional initiatives which follow the latest global trends and aspirations in pharmacy and health care.
Through the projects and campaigns which connect colleagues at home and abroad, NAPSer aims to help students become high-quality pharmacy and competent health professionals aware of the importance of pharmacy in a health system and pharmacists in the Health Care team.

What makes NAPSer Unique within our Federation?

“We have many projects which happen during whole year, but the most anticipated event is National Congress at Zlatibor! Around 300 pharmacy students of Serbia and abroad gather on the mountain Zlatibor where they have classes, educational workshops and parties for four days. Experts in pharmacy and medical sciences gather and share tehir knowledge with the students. Fresh air and lovely mountain spirit surround the students while walking, ice-skating or drinking tea! Parties have themes and each year the themes are different. However, there is one party out of three which stays the same – party with masks! So you can be a pirate, fairy, crazy scientist or anything you can imagine! The congress at Zlatibor brings the best memories. Join us this year on our 10th NAPSer congress and you will not regret it! (You can check this with Lucas Ercolin! 🙂 ).”

–  Katarina Baćević, CP

National ExCo Members:

*as they appear on the picture, from left to right*
  •  Jovana Čimbur: General Secretary
  •  Katarina Baćević: IPSF CP
  •  Jovana Petrović: IPSF SEO
  •  Nebojša Salaj: Treasurer
  •  Miloš Đorđević: Webmaster
  •  Ivan Milićević: President
  •  Smiljka Tasić: EPSA LS
  •  Marija Petković: PH Coordinator

 

Want to learn more about NAPSer? Check out their website!

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